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Gonorrhea

Introduction
A sexually transmitted infection (STI) known as gonorrhea is brought on by the Neisseria gonorrhoeae bacteria. Although anyone can contract this common and highly contagious infection, sexually active people are the ones who are most likely to have it.

Epidemiology
A major global health concern, gonorrhea is thought to cause 67 million new cases of illness each year. It is a serious public health issue in Ghana, especially for young people and adolescents.

Causative Agent
The bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae is the causative agent of gonorrhea.

Incubation Period
The incubation period of gonorrhea is typically 2-14 days, with most symptoms appearing within 5-7 days after exposure.

Reservoir
The reservoir of gonorrhea is humans, as the bacteria can only survive and multiply in human hosts.

Reservoir Infection
Reservoir infection refers to the ability of the bacteria to survive and multiply in an infected person’s body, allowing them to transmit the infection to others.

Mode of Transmission
The main way that gonorrhea is spread is by sexual contact, which includes oral, anal, and vaginal sex. During childbirth, it can also be passed from mother to kid.

Period of Communicability
A person with gonorrhea can transmit the infection to others from the time of infection until they receive effective treatment.

Susceptibility and Resistance
Gonorrhea can affect everyone, although certain people may be more vulnerable than others because of things like age, sexual behavior, and not using condoms. Treatment is difficult since the germs are resistant to some antibiotics.

Standard Case Definition
A confirmed case of gonorrhea is defined as a person with laboratory-confirmed infection or a person with symptoms and a history of sexual contact with a confirmed case.

Susceptibility Case
A susceptibility case refers to a person who has been exposed to gonorrhea and is at risk of developing the infection.

Confirmed Case
A confirmed case is a person with laboratory-confirmed gonorrhea infection.

Clinical Manifestation
Symptoms of gonorrhea is:

  • Thick, cloudy discharge from the penis or vagina
  • Painful urination
  • Painful sex
  • Abnormal bleeding
  • Rectal discharge or bleeding (in cases of anal infection)

Control

  • Early detection and treatment
  • Contact tracing and testing
  • Safe sex practices (condom use)
  • Avoiding sexual contact with infected individuals

Prevention

  • Safe sex practices (condom use)
  • Avoiding sexual contact with infected individuals
  • Getting regularly tested for STIs

Treatment
Treatment typically involves antibiotics, and it is essential to complete the full treatment course to ensure effective cure.

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