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Gum Disease.

Gum disease, sometimes called periodontal disease, is a common ailment that affects the gums and the bones that hold the teeth in place. In more advanced stages, teeth may become loose and fall out. It can range from mild gum inflammation to a serious illness that damages the soft tissue and bone supporting the teeth..

Causes of Gum Disease;

Plaque, a sticky bacterial film that develops on teeth, is the main cause of gum disease. Plaque turns into tartar, which can only be removed by a dentist, if it is not eliminated by consistent brushing and flossing. Gum disease is first caused by an infection and inflammation of the gums brought on by the bacteria found in plaque and tartar. among the factors are

  • Smoking and Tobacco Use; These significantly impair gum health and healing
  • Genetics; family history of gum disease can increase susceptibility
  • Hormonal Changes; Pregnancy, menopause, and puberty can make gums more sensitive and vulnerable to disease
  • Medications; Certain drugs reduce saliva flow, which helps protect gums
  • Poor Nutrition; Deficiencies in essential nutrients, especially vitamin C, can worsen gum conditions
  • Poor Oral Hygiene; Inadequate brushing and flossing facilitate plaque buildup
  • Chronic Illnesses; Conditions like diabetes and HIV/AIDS affect gum health

Symptoms of Gum Disease;

  • Gingivitis; The earliest stage, characterized by red, swollen gums that bleed easily, especially during brushing or flossing. At this stage, the damage is reversible with proper oral hygiene.
  • Periodontitis;Untreated gingivitis can progress to periodontitis, in which the bone and gums pull away from the teeth, creating infected pockets. Bacterial toxins and the body’s immune reaction to the bacteria cause the bone and connective tissue that hold teeth in place to begin to break down. Persistent foul breath, receding gums, deep pockets between teeth and gums, loose or moving teeth, and adjustments to bite alignment are some of the symptoms..

Diagnosis and Treatment;

Diagnosis of gum disease include a dental examination, during which a periodontist will;

  • Examine Gums; Checking inflammation, bleeding, and pocket depth
  • Measure Pocket Depth; Use a periodontal probe to measure the depth of spaces between teeth and gums
  • Dental X-rays; Detecting bone loss around teeth
  • Review Medical History; Identification of conditions or risk factors

Treatment is based on the severity of disease;

  • Non-Surgical Treatments;
  1. Professional Cleaning; Removal of plaque and tartar through scaling and root planing to clean infected root surfaces.
  2. Antibiotics; oral antibiotics may be used to control bacterial infection.
  • Surgical Treatments:
  1. Bone and Tissue Grafts; Promoting new gum tissue growth in areas where they have been destroyed
  2. Guided Tissue Regeneration; Encouraging bone regrowth using a special mesh-like fabric
  3. Flap Surgery; Lifting back the gums to remove tartar deposits and then suturing the gums back in place


Preventing gum disease involves maintaining excellent oral hygiene and preventive measures are;

  • Brushing and Flossing; At least twice a day to remove plaque.
  • Regular Dental Visits; Professional cleanings and examinations at least twice a year.
  • Healthy Die; Eating balanced diet to boost immune function and oral health.
  • Avoiding Tobacco; stop smoking or chewing tobacco to improve gum health.
  • Managing Health Conditions; Controlling diseases such as diabetes that can affect gum health.


Gum disease is a prevalent yet avoidable illness. The advancement of periodontal disease can be stopped and healthy gums can be maintained with good oral hygiene, routine dental care, and a balanced lifestyle. In order to prevent serious dental and medical issues, early detection and treatment are essential. As soon as you observe signs of gum disease, get in touch with a dentist to start receiving the right care.

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