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HomeHealth & FitnessPneumonia in children under 5 years.

Pneumonia in children under 5 years.


Is the swelling of the airspaces in the lung, normally caused by infections. viruses, bacteria or fungi can caused the infection. Pneumonia and acute respiratory infection represent the number one causes of mortally among children below 5 years of age.

The causative agent

Causes of bacterial pneumonia areĀ Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) among children, and Haemophilus influenzae type B.

Period of communicability

For pneumococcal disease is unknown but transmission can occur as long as the organism appears in the respiratory secretions.

People who are susceptible and resistance;

  • chronic lung disease
  • Elderly person
  • Malnutrition
  • Person with chronic diseases
  • Diabetes mellitus

How pneumonia transmit or how individual acquired it or mode of transmission;

  • through infectious droplets
  • direct oral contact
  • fomites, freshly contaminated with respiratory discharge.

Standard case definition pneumonia

A child presenting with cough or difficult in breathing ;

50 or more breath per minute for infant age 2 months up to 1 year and 40 or more breaths per minute for young child 1 year up to 5 years.


A young infant age 0 up to 2 months with cough and fast breathing is classified in IMCI as ” serious bacterial infection” and is referred for further evaluation.

Signs/ clinical definition for severe pneumonia

A child presenting with cough or difficult in breathing and any danger sign;

  • difficult in breastfeeding
  • unable to drink water
  • unconsciousness
  • lethargy
  • vomit every thing
  • convulsion

Confirmed Case

  • Laboratory confirmation
  • Radiographic

Risk factors for pneumonia, these include

  • a weak immune system
  • having a chronic disease
  • malnutrition


antibiotic medications are the treatment of choice for pneumonia caused by bacterial.



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