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Routes of vaccine administration

This page provides guidance for vaccine administration routes and includes vaccine dosage, route, and site guides.

Common routes of vaccine administration.

  1. Intramuscular (IM) Injection:
    • Benefits: Provides a rapid and robust immune response. Common for many vaccines like influenza and hepatitis.
    • Side Effects: Mild pain, swelling, or redness at the injection site. Rarely, allergic reactions may occur.
  2. Subcutaneous (SC) Injection:
    • Benefits: Slower absorption, suitable for certain vaccines like the MMR (measles, mumps, rubella) vaccine.
    • Side Effects: Similar to IM injections but usually milder.
  3. Intradermal (ID) Injection:
    • Benefits: Requires smaller vaccine doses. Used for specific vaccines, like Bacillus Calmette-GuĂ©rin (BCG) for tuberculosis.
    • Side Effects: Mild irritation or redness at the injection site.
  4. Oral Administration:
    • Benefits: Convenient and needle-free. Polio vaccine is commonly administered orally.
    • Side Effects: Can cause gastrointestinal issues like diarrhea.
  5. Intranasal Spray:
    • Benefits: Efficient for respiratory viruses. FluMist is an example.
    • Side Effects: Mild nasal congestion or runny nose.
  6. Intravenous (IV) Injection:
    • Benefits: Immediate systemic response. Rarely used for vaccines due to potential serious side effects.
    • Side Effects: Higher risk of adverse reactions, not commonly employed for routine vaccinations.

Each route has its advantages and considerations, and the choice depends on the specific vaccine and the desired immune response. Always consult with healthcare professionals for personalized advice.

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